Assessment of Learning Outcomes in the K to 12 Program

The assessment process is holistic, with emphasis on the formative or developmental purpose of quality assurance in student learning. It is also standards-based as it seeks to ensure that teachers will teach according to the standards and students will aim to meet or even exceed the standards. The students’ attainment of standards in terms of content and performance is, therefore, a critical evidence of learning.

The assessment shall be done at four levels which are an adaptation of the cognitive levels for learning. Weights are assigned to the levels.

Level of Assessment Percentage Weight
Knowledge 15%
Process or skills 25%
Understanding(s) 30%
Product/Performances 30%



The levels are defined as follows:

  1. “Knowledge” refers to the substantive content of the curriculum, the facts and information that the student acquires.
  2. “Process” refers to cognitive operations that the student performs on facts and information for the purpose of constructing meanings and understandings. This level is assessed through activities or tests of analytical ability.
  3. “Understandings” refer to enduring big ideas, principles and generalizations inherent to the discipline, which may be assessed using the facets of understanding. Assessment at this level, should require ability to synthesize, generalize and judge accordingly.
  4. “Products/Performances” refer to real-life application of understanding as evidenced by the student’s performance of authentic tasks. At this level students are expected to be able to apply what has been learned in contrived or real situations.