The design, development, and dissemination are the three phases of instructional making. We will now look at the guiding principles for each phase.
- Accumulated experience – the writer reviews or surveys existing materials which can give useful information about the demands and the needs in the field.
- Rationale for the design – identifies the shortcomings of existing materials to ensure that such short comings are not repeated in the present material.
- Conceptual Framework – combines major and minor concepts regarding language learning, language teaching theories, and materials design principles upon which the material is anchored.
Major concepts refer to the overall principles of second/foreign language learning and teaching will affect every aspect of the design of the instructional materials.
Minor concepts refer to the following:
- Organization of languages skills to be taught;
- Selection, gradation and arrangement of content;
- Methodology associated with the acquisition of these skills; and
- Organization for the development and dissemination of the materials.
Detailed writing of the specification for the new materials – the specification includes:
- Goals of the materials
- Subject matter, language content to be covered, and the skills to be acquired through the content:
- Techniques and modes of presentation, practice, use and management associated with the learning of the content
- Format of the materials including how learning units are divided
- Technical details for the writing of the materials
- Writing the experimental materials
- Internal evaluation of materials
- Controlled tryout
- Extensive use of the new IM
- Field evaluation of the IM