The two general types of research are quantitative research and the qualitative research. However, in recent literature, the action research is already included in the list.
- Quantitative Research – It is centered on the objective investigation of a population represented by a set of samples. It uses numerical data to explain the researcher’s observations of the samples’ behavior. It is usually done in a contrived setting. It likewise uses and applies language and literature theories and related concepts to identify the data to be gathered. Moreover, some statistical methods and techniques are used to analyze and generalize data. The process used to undertake quantitative research is deductive. The main purpose of this research type is to test theories, predict outcomes, establish facts, and test hypothesis or assumptions. It isolates variables and uses large samples. It collects data using tests and formal instruments.
- Qualitative Research –It assumes that social reality is continuously constructed in local situations. It makes a holistic observation of the total context within which social action occurs. It uses analytic induction to analyze data and it discovers concepts and theories after data have been collected. The approach is inductive and the goal is to describe multiple realities, develop deep understanding and captures everyday life and human perspective.
- Action Research – The action research is before classified under qualitative research because it mainly used the qualitative methods and techniques. However, in the current literature on research, action research is classified under the general type which means it becomes co-equal with both quantitative and qualitative research. The argument is that action research may utilize both quantitative and qualitative research methods and techniques.