- A type of assessment designed to provide a measure of performance that is interpretable in terms of an individual’s standing in some group (Reganit et al., 2010).
- Emphasize discrimination among individuals in terms of relative levels of learning (Reganit et. al., 2010).
- Are tests used to determine the performance of the learners in a test the result of which are characterized by validity otherwise there is no measurement (Calderon & Gonzales, 1993).
- Are used to determine the achievements of individuals in comparison with the achievements of other individuals who take the same test (Calderon & Gonzales, 1993).
- Are designed to produce variability among individuals (Calderon & Gonzales, 1993).
- Are used for selection and grouping purposes (Calderon & Gonzales, 1993).
- Gives us information on what a student can do in comparison with other students in the class (Rico, 2011).
- The score of a student is interpreted by comparing his/her score to other individuals (Reganit et. al., 2010).
- Suppose a student obtain 65 in a test. This student is better than those students below 65 and all students with scores above 65 are better than he is (Calderon & Gonzales, 1993).
- The NCEE and tests are given for the selection of honour student, scholarship grantees, new employees, and old employees who would undergo training for higher positions (Calderon & Gonzales, 1993).
Reganit, A., et al., 2010. Assessment of student learning I (Cognitive Learning). C&E Publishing, Inc. Quezon City, Philippines.