The scientific report, just like any document consists of important parts that contribute to its effectiveness. Each part, though a separate unit by itself, must be considered in relation to the other parts of the report. The following parts are also found in a typical research paper.
This is the first page that will be read by your readers and consists of the title, name and details about the author, and date of submission. The title is a concise description of your report’s main idea. Your readers should be able to tell what your report is about just by looking at the keywords found in the title. You might wish to check current scientific reports in your library to guide you on the specific format and mechanics when you write your title ‘page.
Table of Contents
If your scientific report is more than six pages, provide a Table of Contents. This is the page containing information about the topics covered and the exact pages where the headings are found. Some Table of Contents are so detailed that even the subheadings contain page numbers; in some, however, only the headings contain page numbers.
Defined as a stand-alone summary, the abstract provides a comprehensive synopsis of the scientific report. Because it is self-contained, it is often regarded as a written document that is sufficient by itself. This is where you can briefly discuss your reasons for doing scientific research, the process or methods used, as well as the results. Although the abstract gives a preview of what the entire report is about, it is not the venue to discuss related literature or researches that are similar to yours.
Your introduction is the part that will contextualize the research for your readers, and it is the bait that will draw them to read your report. It should include the following: the purpose of your research; a description of the problem; similar researches that had been conducted before; the general design of your method; and your research hypothesis, or the theory that you will be testing in relation to your chosen technical or scientific phenomenon.
Materials and Methods (Experimental)
This is the part that tackles the how of your scientific research. Here, you need to include the techniques that you used in carrying out the process in precise language so that others wishing to replicate your research could do it with the same success. This is the part of your report that should answer the question: what was the process and how was it done?
This section provides a concise explanation of what happened as a result of your scientific research. In this section, you may include pictures, tables, and graphs and explaining each visual aid in the text without repeating the information that you have already stated in the visual aids.
This is the section where you will explain the results of your scientific research. If the introduction answers the question why, this section answers the question: what do the findings mean? But more than just explaining the findings, you should explain their implications or what the report means in a larger context. Although subjective, your interpretation of the findings should be backed up by actual observation and data. It is also in this section where you may acknowledge errors in the findings and what caused them.
This section should be brief but substantial, not longer than the Discussion section. This is where you will link your findings with the points raised in the introduction. As the clincher, the conclusion is the part where you emphasize your findings in relation to your objectives and make suggestions to improve similar researches in the future.
This section provides information about all the references that you used in the course of your scientific research, formatted in the style prescribed by your teacher.