The various parts of speech are grouped into phrases and clauses, which make up the basic sentence.
Phrases are groups of related words that do not contain a subject-verb combination or express a complete thought. There are noun, prepositional, participial, verb, and infinitive phrases.
my widescreen TV
the tired old man
over the wall
around the block
playing the fool
running the program
will be given
Clauses are groups of related words that contain a subject-verb combination. Independent clauses express a complete thought and can stand by themselves as sentences. Subordinate clauses serve as part of a sentence but do not express a complete thought and cannot stand by themselves. They are subordinate to independent clauses.
the floodplain was completely underwater
John got us jobs as stagehands
they took the off-road trail
by the time June arrived
because he works at the theater
when they came to the turn
By the time June arrived, the floodplain was completely underwater.
John got us jobs as stagehands, because he works at the theater.
When they came to the turn, they took the off-road trail.