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PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING

Principles on the Selection and Use of Various Forms of Media as Instructional Materials

As a teacher, you shall be able to appropriately choose a form of media that would best communicate your instructional objectives to your students and at the same time, provide the best learning experience for the latter.

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There’s a bunch of media out there that would best fit your purpose in instruction. As a teacher, you shall be able to appropriately choose a form of media that would best communicate your instructional objectives to your students and at the same time, provide the best learning experience for the latter. Here are samples of instructional media used for instruction:

1. Audio Recordings

Audio recordings include tapes, records and compact discs. Tapes may be in the form of teacher-recorded, student-recorded of ready-made tapes that are commercially produced. Audio media are used by teachers in connection with speech rehearsals, drama, musical presentation and radio and television broadcasting.

Advantages

  • Improve listening skill
  • Easy to operate
  • Safe way of storing information
  • Can be used for big or small groups
  • Best used to improve speech skills
  • Lessen distraction when used with headphones

Disadvantages

  • Extended use may bore students
  • Costly compared to actual oral presentation

Guidelines on how to use it.

  • Preview the material.
  • Prepare an outline of important points that will be presented.
  • Motivate the students to listen carefully to some important details.
  • End with questions, .discussions and other forms of evaluation.

2. Overhead Transparencies and Overhead Projector (OHP)

By using an overhead projector, transparency can show pictures, diagrams and sketches at a time when they are needed in a discussion. Step-by-step instructions, enumerations or any sequenced illustrations can easily be presented through transparencies.

Advantages

  • Transparencies can easily be prepared by the teacher or the students. The teacher is able to maintain eye contact while the transparency is on.
  • Transparencies are reusable.
  • OHP presentation can be used with large or small groups.
  • OHP is easy to operate.

Disadvantages

  • The overhead projector may be costly for some.
  • Moving it around needs as much care.
  • When overheated, transparencies can be damaged.

Guidelines

  • Make sure the projector is available when needed.
  • Organize the transparencies according to the proper sequence.
  • Use a pointer to point out important details.
  • Turn the projector off when changing transparencies.

3. Bulletin Boards

A bulletin board is usually stationary on a wall or it can be movable. The surface is made of cork or soft wall boards for easy attachment, of display items. Its contents may be used for the duration of a unit being studied. The learning materials may be pictures, newspaper clippings, real objects or drawings.

Advantages

  • It can present a preview of the lesson to be presented as a way of motivating the students.
  • The attractive displays can add life and color to a drab room atmosphere.
  • A display can allow a number of students to browse over its contents at the same time.

Disadvantage

  • A good one needs time to plan and execute. If hurried, the display may fail in conveying the message desired.

Guidelines

  • The items to be displayed must be tastefully selected.
  • A well-organized layout of the text and materials can convey at once the idea.
  • Prepare a preliminary sketch of what is to be included in it, including the materials to be needed.
  • Discuss the finished products and how they will be used.

4. Chalkboard

This includes not only those with flat and wide surfaces but also the portable types which can be moved or even serve as dividers. Using chalk is a convenient writing area where illustrations can instantly be drawn even during a discussion. An eraser can easily keep it clean and ready for continuous use.

Advantages

  • It is easily available.
  • It is inexpensive and easy to install. It can accommodate so much writing space and easy to clean. Topics can be listed, deleted or revised to a final form.
  • It is convenient to use both for formally prepared lessons or for spontaneous sessions.
  • The attention of the class can easily be held and focused, it being located usually in front of the room.

Disadvantages

  • Lessons or writings on the chalkboard are only for a, day’s use, hence temporary and cannot be saved.
  • Chalkdust makes the area messy.
  • Writing makes one turn his back to the audience.
  • The teacher’s handwriting and spelling deficiency can cause disruption from the lesson.

Guidelines

  • Make sure that the chalkboard and erasers are cleaned and maintained. Chalk must be available before the class starts.
  • Plan ahead what you are going to write on the board.
  • Write legibly and neatly. Start writing from the left to the right.
  • Stand in such a way that you don’t block the view of the students when writing.
  • Avoid talking to the board while writing.
  • Never use the hand for erasing.
  • Clean the board after using so it will be ready for the next teacher to use.
  • Don’t draw graphs, diagrams and other figures on the board, if the use of a transparency and the OHP will be more efficient and effective.

5. Charts

Charts may be in the form of maps, graphs, photographs and cut-outs. They may be pre-prepared graphic devices or posters.

Advantages

  • Charts can be used over and over again.
  • They can be moved easily from one place to another.
  • Colored charts are more attractive. • Charts can be made by students.

Disadvantages

  • Charts cannot show motion
  • Big charts are cumbersome to handle.
  • Charts can be outdated.

Guidelines

  • Plan well to make sure it fits the lesson.
  • The parts of the chart must be clear, neat and detailed enough for vivid viewing.
  • Avoid crowding the graphics to be shown.
  • When identifying a portion, use a pointer.
  • When you use the chart attach it on the wall rather than hold it.
  • Keep it well when not in use so it does not get torn or soiled.

6. Mock-ups

A mock-up is a replica of an object that may be larger or smaller in scale. It is intended to show the essential parts which are made detachable.

Advantages

  • It can be constructed by the teacher since she knows which part should be emphasized. In a mock-up structure of a flower, the detachable parts could be the pistil and the stamen.
  • It is a way of focusing observations on the desired part to be studied as well as the functional relationships of the parts.

Disadvantages

  • Its construction could be time-consuming.
  • Since the sizes are exaggerated, the students might be confused when faced with the real object.
  • It could be costly.

Guidelines

  • Involve the students in building mock-ups.
  • Guide the students in the construction of a mock-up.
  • Make sure it truly illustrates the functional relationship of the parts of the real object.
  • Prepare a sketch of the desired scale and location of the parts before building it.

7. Realia

Realia stands for the real things that are to be studied like using real insects or plants. They are plentiful in the children’s environment and around the school.

Advantages

  • Real objects are easily available everywhere.
  • Examining real objects create concrete learning experiences for the learner.
  • Real specimens can be handled and observed thoroughly.
  • They are inexpensive.
  • The children are familiar with the teal materials and their interest can easily be focused.

Disadvantages

  • Some live animals and plants are potential hazards. Objects like circuits and heat sources could be dangerous.
  • Some are expensive.
  • Problems regarding storage and retrieval may arise.

Guidelines

  • Fit the real objects with the objectives of the lesson.
  • Students can bring their own realia from their homes.
  • Students should be encouraged to help in locating and acquiring realia for their classroom use.
  • Discuss with them rules on retrieval and safe storage.

8. Video Tapes/Films

Films come in the form of 8 mm and 16 m type. Videotapes can be purchased or rented.

Advantages

  • Motion pictures easily motivate children.
  • Movement or sequence of events can be shown clearly.
  • They are adaptable to large or small groups.
  • Considering the number of times they can be used, they are relatively inexpensive.
  • They require very little reading skills.

Disadvantages

  • Choosing films with the exact content desired may be a problem.
  • Projection equipment might be expensive for some schools.
  • Mechanical and operational problems may arise with the projection equipment.

Guidelines

  • In purchasing or renting, allow sufficient time in order to have them available when needed.
  • Preview the film to get thoroughly acquainted with its content.
  • Take down notes for the terms, facts and other details that will be needed in the discussion.
  • Before showing the film, discuss the objectives of the film or tapes and provide tips on what to observe carefully. This will prepare make ready for the assessment questions after.

9. Models

Models are scaled replicas of real objects/When the real things cannot be used due to their either too large or too small, replicas are used. Examples are globes, model cars; airplanes or houses and furniture.

Advantages

  • Models provide motivation and enhance learning.
  • Oversized objects can be reduced in size and can be studied in the classroom.
  • Some models can be purchased from commercial firms.
  • The parts can be built as to scale and can appear exactly like the real object.

Disadvantages

  • Purchase of models can be costly.
  • If models are built as to scale, it could be time-consuming.

Guidelines

  • Emphasize the size of the real object while being used.
  • Use of moving models can catch attention and interest easily.
  • Encourage students to construct simple models with parts in correct proportion.
  • Some models can be kept for display for a long time depending on the materials used.

10. Pictures

These include flat, opaque and still pictures. Photographs or pictures clipped from newspapers and magazines are also used, The concepts to be taught could be introduced through pictures.

Advantages

  • Appropriate pictures that fit the objectives are easy to obtain.
  • They are often free in the form of clippings.
  • In a well chosen picture, the amount of information that can be conveyed is tremendous. • They are more effective than oral or written statements.
  • They are reusable.

Disadvantages

  • Choosing the right picture can be a problem for some teachers,
  • Handling of pictures needs so much care.
  • Sometimes. the correct size or perspective if scaled in a picture can cause confusion especially if the children are not familiar with the object
  • An airplane and a boat may be interpreted to be of the same size.

Guidelines

  • Make sure the picture to be used is not outdated.
  • Small pictures are difficult to see.
  • Organize the collection of pictures similar to a filing system.
  • Pictures should be easily seen, attractive and accurate.
  • They can be mounted on hard paper or laminated for ease in handling and protection.
  • Motivate students to make their own collection from newspaper or magazine clippings for future reference.

11. Books

Textbooks and all kinds of books are also classified as media or sub-strategies. They contain information, pictures and graphics. Despite the deluge of electronic materials in the market, books will remain indispensable.

Advantages

  • Books are well-written. They present accurate facts and details.
  • They serve as permanent sources of information. Owning books assures one with available information when needed.
  • They are reusable.
  • Students can control their own pace of learning by using books at a convenient time.
  • Books that present color, action and beautiful sceneries are enjoyed and reread a number of times.

Disadvantages

  • Books on special contents can be expensive for some.
  • At one time, the search for information can be limited to only one or two readers.
  • Some students are not “readers”.

Guidelines

  • Cultivate the love for books among children at an early age. Assist them in understanding some facts cited especially the new figures.
  • Care in handling books is like respecting the author and the writings therein.
  • Always refer to new and updated or revised edition of books. Encourage students to purchase and make a mini-library in their study room.

12. Electronic Materials

A lot of electronic materials are now available for teaching-learning – CDs, DVDs, CD-ROMS and the Internet. While these are developments in the field, of educational technology, it does not mean that all these that came before like textbooks have become obsolete.

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