What is the selection criteria and process of best design? The factors that affect the choice of a research design over another are the research problem, the personal experiences of the researcher, and the audience or readers for whom the report would be presented.
The Research Problem
The research problem is an issue or concern that needs to be handled and discussed. If a researcher needs to understand a concept or phenomenon or if only few research studies about a certain topic are available, qualitative approach is appropriate. This approach is exploratory in nature and can be very useful if the researcher lacks knowledge in what variables to be investigated. It can also be utilized if the topic is new and has never been dealt with an unspecified sample or group of people, and if relevant theories are not applicable to a definite sample or group under inquiry.
Although student-researchers are the ones who choose the research design and approach, their choices and decisions must be supervised and approved by their adviser.
Personal Experiences of the Researcher
The choice of approach would depend on the researcher’s educational background, experiences, and training. Individuals who want to write in a literary manner, conduct interviews, and immerse themselves in a community are qualitative researchers.
A qualitative research approach allows the researcher to become innovative and can work within his designed framework. Aside from that, he/she may use creative, literary style of writing. Topics in this approach may also be of personal interest of the researcher, issues that he/she can relate to, from the grassroots of social classes, and the interest of all of aiming for a better society in the future.
The audience will be the readers of the researcher’s work. The journal editors, panel of examiners in a school, colleagues in a particular field, and the conference attendees are the ones who will judge if the research study is acceptable or not.