Cooperative learning is a group helping each other learn but keeping each individual member accountable for his/her learning.
The constructivist approach demands students to construct their own meaning out of their own learning experience.
A metacognitive approach makes students think about their thinking. Thinking aloud is an act of metacognition.
The inquiry method is also called the discovery or problem-solving method. The teacher guides the students as they explore and discover.
Direct instruction is a way of teaching which is aimed at helping students acquire some basic skills and "procedural knowledge." It is described as straightforward and is done in a step-by-step manner.