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ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC & PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES

The Common Citation Syles

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Are references needed in the following situations?

You’ve just attended a seminar about “Federalism” which is your research topic. The keynote speaker spoke lengthily about the topic. You’ve jotted down important details and even copied the lecture electronically, with the intention to use the information in your research.

Do you have to reference this information?

YES
NO

Comments: ____________________________________

While riding a taxi on your way home after class, you happen to hear someone talking about millennials. The speaker, whose name you didn’t get (because you were not in the taxi yet in time for the start of the radio program) cited some interesting and original information that matched your own theory about millennials. Once you’ve reached home, you summarized the ideas and included them in your writing assignment.

Do you have to reference this information?

YES
NO

Comments: ____________________________________

Last night, you watched a CNN documentary about the life of Lady Diana, who is the subject of your research on celebrity icons. You took notes, even taping portions of the documentary. You tried to access the documentary online; unfortunately, the Internet yielded a different documentary about Lady Diana. You decided to use your own notes and the taped portions of the documentary for your research, integrating this viewpoint in your research.

Do you have to reference this information?

YES
NO

Comments: ____________________________________

Guide Questions:

  1. What happens if you do not cite your source/s?
  2. With all the ideas that you have to consider, which ones do you retain and cite for your writing assignment?

Citation styles vary to suit the type of academic writing, and they differ in terms of how the information to be referenced is arranged within the paragraph and in the reference list; this is to distinguish the format from those used for other academic disciplines. A slight variation also exists in the way parenthetical documentation or in-text citations are written. In most types of writing and in most disciplines, the APA citation style is standard and preferred. As seen in the table below, the APA style caters to a number of academic disciplines, unlike other citation styles which cater to a specific academic realm only.

The table below shows the different citation styles and the academic disciplines for which they are suited.

Citation Style Academic Discipline
APA
Psychology, Education, Hotel and Restaurant Management, Business, Economics, and other Social Sciences
MLA
Literature, Arts, and Humanities
IEEE
Engineering
AMA
Medicine, Health, and Natural Sciences
Chicago
Reference books, non-academic, periodicals (e.g. newspapers, magazines, journals)
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