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    Types of validity in Assessment

    1. Content Validity

    • It is related to how adequately the content of the root test sample the domain about which inference is to be made (Calmorin, 2004).
    • This is being established through logical analysis adequate sampling of test items usually enough to assure that the test is usually enough to assure that a test has content validity (Oriondo, 1984).

    EXAMPLE:
    A teacher wishes to validate a test in Mathematics. He requests experts in Mathematics to judge if the items or questions measures the knowledge the skills and values supposed to be measured.

    2. Construct Validity

    The test is the extent to which a test measures a theoretical trait. This involves such tests as those of understanding, and interpretation of data (Calmorin, 2004).

    EXAMPLE:
    A teacher might design whether an educational program increases artistic ability amongst pre-school children. Construct validity is a measure of whether your research actually measures artistic ability, a slightly abstract label.

    3. Criterion – Related Validity (Concurrent Validity)

    It refers to the degree to which the test correlates with a criterion, which is set up as an acceptable measure on standard other than the test itself. The criterion is always available at the time of testing (Asaad, 2004).

    EXAMPLE:

    r =  10(1722) – (411)2 (352) / √[10(17197) – (411)2] [10(12700) – (352)2]

    r = 0.83

    INTERPRETATION: A 0.83 coefficient of correlation indicates that his test has high concurrent validity.

    4. Criterion – Related Validity (Predictive Validity)

    This refers to the degree of accuracy of how a test predicts one performance at some subsequent outcome (Asaad, 2004).

    EXAMPLE:
    Mr. Celso wants to know the predictive validity of his test administered in the previous year by correlating the scores with the grades of the same students obtained in a (test) later date. Their scores and grades are presented below:

    r =  10(30295) – (849) (354) / √[10(77261) – (849)2] [10(12908) – (354)2]
    r = 0.92

    INTERPRETATION: A 0.92 coefficient of correlation indicates that his test has high predictive validity.

    5. Face Validity

    • Test questions are said to have face validity when they appear to be related to the group being examined (Asaad, 2004).
    • This is done by examining the test to bind out if it is the good one. And there is no common numerical method for face validity (Raagas, 2010).

    EXAMPLE:
    Calculation of the area of the rectangle when it’s given direction of length and width are 4 feet and 6 feet respectively.

    REFERENCES:
    Asaad, Abubakar S. (2004). Measurement and evaluation concepts and application (third edition). 856 Mecañor Reyes St., Sampaloc, Manila. Rex Bookstore Inc.

    Calmorin, Laurentina. (2004). Measurement and evaluation, 3rd ed. Mandaluyong City. National Bookstore Inc.

    Oriondo, L. (1984). Evaluation educational outcomes. Manila.

    Raagas, Ester L. (2010). Measurement (assessment) and education concept and application (third edition).Karsuagan, Cagayan De Oro City.

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