It is a quantitative expression of a construct that can vary in quantity or quality in observed phenomenon. It stands for variation within a class of objects. The different types of variables are:
- Independent variable – a variable that the researcher thinks occurred prior in time to, and has an influence on another variable or on the dependent variable.
- Dependent variable – a variable that is affected by or influenced by an independent variable.
- Intervening variable – a variable which cannot be controlled or measured directly that has an important effect upon the outcome.
This pertains to a researcher’s prediction of the tentative results and findings of a study based on a theory or assumption of the variables measured in the study. This likewise presents the relationship between variables. The types of hypothesis are:
- Null Hypothesis – a prediction that no relationship between two measured variables will be found or that no difference between two groups on a measured variable will be found.
- Non directional hypothesis – simply states that a relationship or difference exists between variables.
- Directional hypothesis – presents the expected direction of the relationship or difference
- It is based on sound reasoning.
- It provides a reasonable explanation for the predicted outcome.
- It clearly states the expected relationship between defined variables.
- It is testable within a reasonable time frame.