Variables and Hypothesis

It is a quantitative expression of a construct that can vary in quantity or quality in observed phenomenon.   It stands for variation within a class of objects.  The different types of variables are:

  • Independent variable – a variable that the researcher thinks occurred prior in time to, and has an influence on another variable or on the dependent variable.
  • Dependent variable – a variable that is affected by or influenced by an independent variable.
  • Intervening variable – a variable which cannot be controlled or measured directly that has an important effect upon the outcome.
This pertains to a researcher’s prediction of the tentative results and findings of a study based on a theory or assumption of the variables measured in the study. This likewise presents the relationship between variables. The types of hypothesis are:
  • Null Hypothesis – a prediction that no relationship between two measured variables will be found or that no difference between two groups on a measured variable will be found.
  • Non directional hypothesis – simply states that a relationship or difference exists between variables.
  • Directional hypothesis – presents the expected direction of the relationship or difference
  • It is based on sound reasoning.
  • It provides a reasonable explanation for the predicted outcome.
  • It clearly states the expected relationship between defined variables.
  • It is testable within a reasonable time frame.