The Written Report
The report must be written in a straightforward manner, a characteristic of a scientific paper. The title of the study is followed by the abstract, a summary of the research report composed of around 150-200 words. The abstract page is then followed by the table of contents, and the body of the report. The body includes introduction, the literature review, methodology, results and discussion, and summary of findings, conclusion, and recommendation. The report may also include an acknowledgment, a statement of gratitude or appreciation for the help received from individuals or organization before, during and after the conduct of the research. Finally, the list of references cited in the report and if necessary, the appendices must be attached after the recommendation.
Integral Parts of the Report
The parts of the report may vary depending on to which organization or agency the report is supposed to be submitted. However, the most common are discussed briefly below.
The introduction contains the reasons why the research was conducted, the research framework, the statements of the problem or objectives, and the significance of the study, all in brief. Some details of the structure of the report may be included in the later part of the introduction.
2. Review of Related Literature
Writing the review of literature is usually done thematically, which involves discussing ideas, claims, and arguments, one after the other. In a thematic discussion, outlining the different themes learned while doing the survey of related literature may help. If a separate literature review is required, the ideas, claims, and arguments must be structured. Citing references must also be done with accuracy.
Methodology presents the research design, research respondents or settings and how they were chosen, the research procedure, and the analysis of data. The chosen research design must also be justified to give the reader a clear perspective of the research. Similarly, a chronological discussion of how the research was carried out must be presented clearly and accurately for those who intend to replicate the study in the future.
4. Results and Discussion
Results should be written objectively and clearly. Tables, graphs, figures, and maps may help organize the data effectively. Textual presentation of results must be done in such a way that it will not duplicate what is reflected in comparison tables or figures. The relevance the results and how the findings are related with the existing related literature are also discussed in this section. Similarly, the analysis and interpretation of the data are presented to give meaning to the study.
5. Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations
The summary recaps the reseach problems, methodology, and findings. The conclusion provides direct answers to the research problems presented in the introduction. It must also give abstractions to these answers to intellectualize the findings of the research. Furthermore, some areas where the research has perceived limitations or where further research can be useful may be presented here.
Statements, which contextualize the findings in the perspectives of the stakeholders, are presented in the Recommendations section. Practical utilization of the findings may be included, as well as future research endeavors as offshoots of the present research. The statements are usually listed in order of priority.